Safe Cycling – Advice on group cycling (Simple Stuff please read)
This document is aimed at those who have recently started cycling with the club, but will be useful for more experienced riders to brush up on their skills. It outlines what to expect when riding with other cyclists in a group, or ‘bunch’ as it is known, in a variety of situations and discusses how to stay safe and take most benefit from each other’s slipstream.
Dangers on a bicycle come in many forms, but the most common are from other road users and obstacles on the road itself. In order to stay safe all the riders in the bunch must avoid hazards whilst not colliding with each other in the process. Communication between riders in a bunch is the only real way of doing this.
Some other basics are to ensure your bike is in good working order, that you carry a range of spares and that your clothing is appropriate for the weather. Food and drink is also important to keep you alert and make sure you get home having enjoyed your cycle. If you are unsure about these things the best way to find out is, as always, to speak to experienced riders who are generally helpful and more than happy to offer advice. General Riding.
There are quite a few guidelines that apply to any situation when a group of riders are riding together be it a weekend club run or a leisure event.
As outlined above there are two main things a bunch of riders must do to stay safe:
1. Everyone must avoid hazards (ie. potholes, other road users, etc.). This is achieved by communication using a series of hand signals and occasional verbal signals which should be acted on, to avoid the danger, and then repeated by each rider down the line, to pass the information on to those behind.
2. Riders must not collide with each other, particularly when in the process of avoiding a hazard; this is achieved by moving in a slow, predictable way and riding in a way that doesn’t endanger other riders.
The second point is the most easy to deal with so let’s look at it first. It is achieved by always making sure your movements within the bunch are slow and predictable.
There are many things that make riders’ movements in a bunch unpredictable and dangerous. Some of the most common of these are:
•Watching the rider in front. In a bunch you are quite close to the rider in front, if he/she has to react quickly to something your reaction may be too late. It is much safer to watch several riders ahead, you will see any sudden movements progressing down the bunch and be able to avoid them. You will still be able to see the rider in front of you through your peripheral vision. By using this method you try to predict what will happen, not react to it when it does.
• Throwing a wheel. This is when a bike moves backwards as a rider gets out of the saddle. This is dangerous as the back wheel can easily hit the front wheel of the rider behind. To avoid this happening riders should take care to move their body forwards, and ensure they keep pressure on the downstroke, when standing out of the saddle rather than pushing their bike back. Also when sitting behind another rider be sure to sit slightly to one side of their wheel in case they throw a wheel at you.
• Overlapping a wheel. When a rider, who is sitting behind another, has their front wheel overlapping the back wheel of the rider in front. This causes problems if the rider in front has to swerve to the side for some reason. If this happens the two wheels can collide and the rider behind can find it difficult to stay upright. To avoid this simply don’t overlap a back wheel.
• Overcompensating movements. If a rider near the front of a bunch makes an unexpected movement, either sideways or by grabbing the brakes, the rider behind reacts to it and instinctively adds a bit onto it. The next rider does the same, the next the same and so on. By the time this movement reaches the back of the bunch the small movement becomes a large movement causing riders to collide with each other or forcing riders onto the wrong side of the road. These movements are usually sideways and are known as ‘switches’. The best way to avoid this is for everyone to avoid any sudden movements, particularly near the front of the bunch. However, sometimes these movements cannot be avoided and so it is always best to look a few riders ahead and predict these switches coming down the bunch and try to move in a slower and more predictable way as they approach you.
In the big sprint finishes of the Tour de France and other pro races, when the pressure is on and riders are riding very close to each other switches can easily happen, and are responsible for the majority of crashes in big sprint finishes.
• Riding beyond your limits. Inexperienced riders who ride closer to other riders than they can cope with can also cause problems. Only ride as close to other riders as you feel comfortable doing. The riders around you may be very experienced and can ride closely with ease. With practice you will feel more comfortable riding closer to other riders.
• Lack of concentration. All of the problems above can be exaggerated by lack of concentration. This can be for many reasons, including tiredness. Always remain aware of what is going on around you in the bunch and eat and drink appropriately to avoid becoming over tired. Towards the end of a long ride look out for signs of tiredness and lack of concentration in others; slow reactions, more erratic movements than usual, dropping their head, locking their elbows to name but a few, and be aware that they will react more slowly than usual.
When riding in a bunch you have different responsibilities depending on where you are riding, at the front, in the middle or at the back.
Riding at the front
The most important member(s) of the bunch at any one time are those at the front. They are the eyes of the bunch as everyone else’s view is obstructed by them. It is down to them to spot dangers in good time and ensure everyone in the bunch avoids the danger.
If the rider(s) at the front spot a pothole, poor road surface or obstacle such as a large stone or brick, with plenty of time they should:
1. Slowly move across the road to a position where they will avoid the hole. 2. Point to where the hole is to allow those behind to avoid it (see Fig 1) and continue to point until the hole has been passed. 3. Slowly move back to their original position on the road.
If the hole or bad surface is larger than about 30cm (1 foot) the same process is used but a waving hand is used instead of a pointed finger, this shows the obstacle is larger (see Fig 2).
For particularly dangerous holes riders may choose to shout ‘HOLE’ to accompany the hand signal. However, care must be taken to shout in a clear way without startling other riders, particularly the less experienced, as this may be more dangerous than the original hazard. Shouts of ‘HOLE RIGHT’ or ‘HOLE LEFT’ etc. should never replace the hand signals as following riders have only a vague idea of where the hazard is. Pointing is much more accurate, less startling and therefore safer.
Parked cars etc.
The same procedure is used for parked cars etc but the hand signal is different. It is a difficult signal to explain but hopefully Fig 3 should give you a good idea if it.
Many vehicles approach and meet the bunch from the other direction and for the majority of these no action is required. However, if the vehicle is particularly large or might pass closer to the bunch than riders behind might expect, the same signal as above is employed except the right hand is used, see Fig 4. This may also be accompanied by the shout of ‘CAR DOWN’. The DOWN referring to the vehicle moving down the bunch.
Hand signals tend to be different in different countries, or even different parts of countries. This is important for those who may travel to ride events like the Etape du Tour or other European leisure events, or for those who watch cycling on television and see different hand signals used in the pro peleton. The hand signals shown here are those widely accepted in Ulster.
In the middle
Riding in the middle of the bunch should be reasonably easy. Just follow the riders in front, react to their signals, then repeat them for those behind. If you hear any shouts from behind, pass them on up the bunch and remember to avoid any unnecessary erratic movements.
At the back
Riding at the back of a bunch is much the same as riding in the middle, with two notable exceptions.
1. You are the rider(s) who warns the rest of the bunch about other road users who are overtaking the bunch. When you become aware that a vehicle is overtaking the bunch shout, clearly but without startling other riders, ‘CAR UP’. It doesn’t really matter if it’s not a car. 2. If the bunch intends to turn left or right, you are the rider(s) the traffic behind will see, so make sure you check behind you to see what the other traffic is up to, advise the rest of the bunch when it is safe to move across the road, if turning right. Make your hand signals very clear to alert motorists behind.